|ابحاث علمية وثقافية مواضيع ثقافية، تحميل ابحاث علمية جاهزة، كتب الكترونية pdf، مشاريع تخرج 2017|
Ahmed Orabi Kamel Ahmed Orabi Ready coordination essay Ahmad Orabi upbringing:
Arabi was born on 1 April 1841 in the village of monthly Rzna Sharkia governorate. When it caught up, sent him and his father, who was mayor of the village to religious education and then joined the military school. Ahmed Orabi elevated him military ranks quickly where he became captain at the age of twenty.
Enter the Khedive Ismail, the Egyptian army a series of failed military adventures in Abyssinia and the Crimean War and Mexico for political reasons, unsuccessfully, under the command of Western mercenaries lack military experience. Those military adventures exhausted and destroyed the Egyptian army and he lost popular support and burdened Treasury debt (which led to the bankruptcy of Egypt, which is the only case in the history of the global economy) and earned Egypt enemies what they were indispensable. :
The campaign failed to Abyssinia in 1875 - 1876 (Hmlhalhbashh) under the leadership of the South American generals (Confederation) Midhoren in the American Civil War.
Khedive Tawfiq Orabi Revolution
Named then Hojh the godfathers.
Following the decision to expel Egyptian officers from the Egyptian army
Khedive: All of these requests are not right for you, and I'm the king of this country inherited from fathers and grandparents, and you only slaves Ahsanatena.
Arabi: God created us free, did not يخلقنا heritage or property; swear that there is no god but He, neither North nor enslaved after today.
Responded Khedive to the demands of the nation, and the isolation of Riad Pasha of the prime minister, was entrusted to Sharif Pasha to form a cabinet, and was a man of generous known for his patriotism and righteousness, He formed his ministry in (19 Shawwal 1298 AH = September 14, 1881), and sought to put the constitution of the country, and managed to finish it and presented to the House of Representatives, which passed most of its articles, then stormed the effort England and France interference in the affairs of the country, and worsen matters, offering "Sharif Pasha" his resignation in (2 Rabi 1299 = 2 February 1882).
And formed a new government headed by Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi, filled Arabi, where the position of "Minister of jihad" (defense), and met with the Ministry "Baroudi" satisfaction and acceptance from various circles of military and civilian; because it was an investigation of the desire of the nation, and complicated hopes, and was good at conjecture, declaring the Constitution, The decree was issued Khedive in (18 March 1299 = 7 February 1882).
However, this step nascent parliamentary life stalled after the outbreak of the dispute between the Khedive and the Ministry of Baroudi on the implementation of certain provisions of the military, did not find this difference of addition of rational parties, Vachtdt crisis, the complexity of the solution, and found Britain and France in this dispute raging between the Khedive and his ministers a chance to intervene in the affairs of the country, فبعثت Bostolehma to Alexandria Beach pretext of protecting foreign threats.
No sooner had attended الأسطولان English and French to the waters of Alexandria, so I took two Tkhataban Egyptian government language of threat and communications official, then offer consul two to Baroudi note joint (7 July 1299 = May 25, 1882 AD) requesting the resignation of the government, and the removal of Orabi and Minister of jihad for Egyptian diameter temporarily while retaining rank مرتباته, and the establishment of "Ali Pasha Fahmi" and "Abdel Aal Basha dream" - two of the godfathers colleagues and senior military leaders - in the countryside with Ahtfazama of the Bertptehma and Mrtbehma.
The response of the Ministry of Baroudi denied this note as an offensive interference in the internal affairs of the country, and asked the Khedive Tawfiq solidarity with them in rejection; but he announced his acceptance of the demands of the two countries, and at this position Baroudi submitted his resignation from the ministry, Khedive فقبلها.
Ahmed Orabi Kamel Ahmed Orabi Ready coordination essay Ahmed Orabi Arabi remain in office:
However, the godfathers remained in office after it announced garrison Alexandria it does not accept non-Arabi, looking for jihad, forced the Khedive to keep him in office, and assigned to maintain security in the country, is that things in the country worsened after the occurrence of the massacre of Alexandria (24 Rajab 1299 = June 11, 1882), was caused by the Makari (donkey transport facilities) of Malta nationals of Britain, killing a Egyptians, فشب the conflict evolved into fighting that killed dozens from both sides dead and wounded.
Following the incident formed a new ministry headed "Ismail willing," and served "godfathers" where glasses jihadist, and the ministry to calm the soul, and worked on the restoration of security in Alexandria, and the formation of a committee to look into the causes of the massacre, and to punish those responsible. Bombardment of Alexandria Whereas England had Pett order, has announced that questioned the ability of the new government to maintain security, and began to invent reasons to harass the Egyptian government, did not fail in the search for a way to its goal, Vanthzat opportunity to renew castles Alexandria and strengthen Astgamatha, and providing them with men, weapons, and sent to commander protector of Alexandria warning in (24 Shaaban 1299 AH = 10 July 1882) to halt immunization and renewal, and take down the guns in them.
As refused Khedive and his cabinet these threats, the fleet England the next day to hit Alexandria and destroy castles, and continued fleet bombing the next day, forced the city to the delivery and raise white flags, and forced Ahmed Orabi to move his troops to "Kafr El Dawar," and reorganize his army.
Instead of resisting the Khedive occupiers, received in Qasralrml Alexandria Admiral Beauchamp Seymour, commander of the British fleet, and to the British side, and made himself and his government pledge their disposal before they even occupy Alexandria. During the fighting, the British sent a group of soldiers with blue Gaktat to protect the Khedive as it moves from the palace to the palace figs sand through the streets of Alexandria flaming. Then send the Khedive to Ahmed Orabi in Kafr El Dawar ordering him to desist from war preparations, and holds responsible for hit Alexandria and has ordered him to appear in the Ras El-Teen Palace; to receive him his instructions.
Ahmed Orabi Kamel Ahmed Orabi Ready coordination article Ahmed Orabi face Khedive and the rejection of its decisions:
Refused godfathers to obey the Khedive after his shameful, and sent to all parts of the country telegrams accusing the Khedive of siding with the British, and warns of follow his orders, and sent to the "Jacob Sami Pasha" agent glasses jihadist ask him to convene a national assembly representative of dignitaries and princes and scholars to consider the position deteriorating and what must be done, فاجتمعت Assembly in (unawares Ramadan 1299 AH = 17 July 1882), and the number of assembled about four hundred, and unanimously agreed on the continuation of the war preparations as long as the British warships on the coasts, and soldiers occupy Alexandria.
The reaction of the Khedive of this decision is to isolate the godfathers of office, and the appointment of "Omar Lotfi" Governor of Alexandria instead of it, but Arabi did not comply with the resolution, and continued to work in Kafr El Dawar preparations to resist the British. After the godfathers victory in the battle of Kafr El Dawar Arabi sent to Jacob Sami invites him to a meeting of the General Assembly to consider the decision of the insulation.
In (6 September 1299 = July 22, 1882 AD) held a meeting at the Interior Ministry, attended by about five hundred members, led by Sheikh Al-Azhar and the Chief Justice of Egypt and Muftiha, and captain supervision, and the Patriarch of the Coptic, and rabbi of the Jews and the House of Representatives, judges, inspectors, managers departments, and senior dignitaries and many mayors, as well as three of the princes of the royal family.
At the meeting, issued a fatwa three senior Azhar sheikhs, and they "Mohammed Aleesh" and "Hassan Adawi," and "Khalafawy" Bmrouk Khedive of religion; to bias to the army warrior for his country, and after deliberation opinion Assembly issued its decision not to isolate the godfathers down, stop orders Khedive Sunglasses and non-implementation; leaving for Shara religion and Muneef law.
Closure of the Suez Canal (the name of the Suez Canal time) battle Qassaseen the
August 28, 1882 during the British army advanced westward in Ismailia governorate, led by General Graham trapped by the parents asked insulation further supply of ammunition at 4:30 pm Vouselth at 8:45 pm, which enabled him to carry out a massacre among parents. Battle of the large hill
On September 13, 1882 (29 th October 1299) at 1:30 am and lasted less than 30 minutes. British surprised Egyptian troops stationed on their days ago and was asleep at the time of the attack. He was arrested on Ahmed Orabi before that complements the military wear his shoes (according to his confession during a trip exiled to Ceylon)
After the battle, Gen. Garnett Wellesley commander of British forces that the great battle of the hill was a typical example of a maneuver was planned well in advance in London and was exactly identical execution as if the whole thing was a war game Kriegspiel. However, Carter said Egyptians "have done بلاءا of the Well" as Chi British army losses.
Wellesley chose the night to avoid the attack of summer and know outbreaks of night blindness (night blindness) is endemic among the Egyptian soldiers, but he noted that the Nubians and Sudanese soldiers did not suffer from this disease.
Ahmed Orabi Kamel Ahmed Orabi Ready coordination essay Ahmed Orabi betrayal خنفس the Pasha:
British forces continued provided to Zagazig, where rapid re-collected that afternoon and then boarded the train (Railway) to Cairo garrison surrendered the castle by the afternoon of the same day. That was the beginning of the British occupation of Egypt, which lasted 72 years.
Ahmed Orabi Kamel Ahmed Orabi Ready coordination essay Ahmad Orabi trial:
Ahmed Orabi detained in the barracks of the Abbasid with Vice students Pasha until his trial was held on December 3, 1882, which ruled him to death. Sentence was commuted immediately afterwards (based on a prior agreement between the authority of the British occupation and Egyptian judges) to lifelong exile to Serendib (Ceylon). Moved the British ambassador to the Sublime Porte, Lord Dovrn, to Cairo, the first delegate Sami - where he oversaw the trial of Ahmed Orabi and not executed exile to Sri Lanka, the British fleet exiled he and his colleagues Abdullah Nadim and Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi to Sri Lanka where they settled in Colombo for a period of 7 years. After the transfer of Ahmed Orabi and Baroudi to the city of Kandy on the pretext of differences cropped up between the comrades of the revolution. Back to Egypt
Upon his return from exile in 1903 brought the Ahmad Orabi tree (mango) to Egypt for the first time.
He died in Cairo on September 21, 1911.
Ahmed Orabi image:
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