Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), known as the Bride of the Mediterranean, is the second largest city in Egypt after Cairo, and is considered the second capital of Egypt and the ancient capital of them, located along the Mediterranean coast, a length of about 70 km north-west of the Nile Delta  , bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, and Lake Mariot as far south as 71 km on the Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, bounded on the east side of Abu Qir Bay and the city of Edco, and the region of Sidi Krier west to 36.30 km on Alexandria - Matrouh highway.
Includes Alexandria between carries a lot of distinctive features, as has the largest seaport in Egypt is the port of Alexandria, which serves about 80% of total imports and exports, and also includes the new Library of Alexandria which can accommodate more than 8 million books,  also includes many Museums and archaeological sites such as Castle Qaytbay and masts and other column, Alexandria has a population of about 4123869 people (according to 2006 census)  working commercial activities, industrial and agricultural. Divided Alexandria to six districts administrative are neighborhood park, East District, neighborhood center, west district, district customs, Amiriya district, containing these neighborhoods on the 16 sections comprising 129 Xiahe , in addition to major cities affiliates such as the city of Burj Al Arab and Burj New Arabs.
Work began on the establishment of Alexandria by Alexander the Great year 332 BC. AD by bridging the part of water separating the island extended in front of the coast Parent called "Pharos" the port of old, and a small village called "Raktos" or "Racodh" surrounded by small villages again spread as well as between the sea and Lake Mariot, and taken by Alexander the Great and his successors the capital of Egypt for nearly a thousand years, until the Islamic conquest of Egypt by Amr ibn al-Aas 641, famous Alexandria through history through a variety of attractions such as the ancient Library of Alexandria, which was with more than 700,000 volumes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which were considered of the seven wonders of the world , for the tremendous height up to about 35 meters, this lighthouse remained list so devastated by a powerful earthquake Year 1307.
The beginning of the fourth century BC, were not Alexandria, only a small village called "Raktos" or "Racodh" surrounded by small villages, he says archaeologists it was probably considered strategic position to drive the tribes that may attack from time to time from the western side of the Nile Valley [ 8], or maybe was "Raktos" just a small village depends on fishing only, and along the main coast of the village there is an island called "Pharos" There is the port serves the island and coastal villages together. At that time, Egypt was under the occupation of the Persian since the fall of the Pharaohs and family Thirty year 343 BC. AD, Egypt was not only under the occupation of the Persians, it was the Levant and Iraq is under the occupation, against the power of the Persians was the power of the Greeks to grow fast, The confrontation between the two began in the spring of 334 BC., and the battles between the two continued until Alexander the Great entered the city of Tyre and then to the Gaza Strip, so did enter Egypt in 333 BC. .